The year is typically interpreted as denoting the divide between the mediaeval and early modern administration of Bethlem. The Governors failed to manage the supply of victuals , relying on "gifts in kind" for basic provisions, and the resources available to the steward to purchase foodstuffs was dependent upon the goodwill of the keeper. The election of James Monro as physician in marked the beginning of a year Monro family dynasty extending through four generations of fathers and sons. During one such visit in they ordered the purchase of clothing and eating vessels for the inmates, presumably indicating the lack of such basic items. The mad on display functioned as a moral exemplum of what might happen if the passions and appetites were allowed to dethrone reason. Both playhouses were a stone's throw away from the original Bethlem site at Bishopsgate. Patients, if capable, were permitted to use the "house of easement", [n 4] of which there were two at most, but more frequently "piss-pots" were used in their cells. Some authorities believe this to be a depiction of The Theatre , the other Elizabethan theatre at Shoreditch in west Moorfields.
The mad on display functioned as a moral exemplum of what might happen if the passions and appetites were allowed to dethrone reason. And in that place be found many men that be fallen out of their wit. At the instigation of the Bridewell Governors and to make a grander architectural statement of "charitable munificence",  the hospital was designed as a single- rather than double-pile building, [n 9] accommodating initially patients. The problem of financial exploitation was partly rectified in , when surgeons received a salary, and from the mid-eighteenth century elected apothecaries were likewise salaried and normally resident within the hospital. In the period thereafter, with staff practices less open to public scrutiny, the worst patient abuses occurred. It is likely that daily meals alternated between meat and dairy products, almost entirely lacking in fruit or vegetables. As Sunday visiting was severely curtailed in and banned seven years later, the peak periods became Christmas, Easter and Whitsun. This marked the beginning of a year Monro family dynasty of Bethlem physicians. This common drain regularly blocked and resulting in overflows of waste at the entrance of the hospital. From , Bethlem was administered by the Bridewell Governors. In an era prior to the state funding of hospitals and with patient fees covering only a portion of costs, such self-advertisement was necessary to win the donations, subscriptions and patronage essential for the institution's survival. The subordination of the priory's religious order to the bishops of Bethlehem was further underlined in the foundational charter, which stipulated that the prior, canons and inmates were to wear a star upon their cloaks and capes to symbolise their obedience to the church of Bethlehem. For instance, both the placement of the hospital in the open space of Moorfields and the form of the building with its large cells and well-lit galleries had been chosen to provide "health and Aire" in accordance with the miasmatic theory of disease causation. The sole qualification of his successor in , a man by the name of Edward Rest,  appears to have been his occupation as a grocer. During one such visit in they ordered the purchase of clothing and eating vessels for the inmates, presumably indicating the lack of such basic items. Crooke had successfully ousted the previous keeper, the layman Thomas Jenner, after a campaign in which he had castigated his rival for being "unskilful in the practice of medicine". The Governors failed to manage the supply of victuals , relying on "gifts in kind" for basic provisions, and the resources available to the steward to purchase foodstuffs was dependent upon the goodwill of the keeper. It is possible that keepers negotiated their fees for these latter categories of patients. And some be abiding therein for ever, for they be fallen so much out of themselves that it is incurable unto man William Gregory, Lord Mayor of London, c. Corrupt staff practices were evidently a significant factor in patient malnourishment and similar abuses were noted in the s and s. The hospital is shown as a very long and thin structure. On the second floor is a corridor and cells like those on the first floor, and this is the part reserved for dangerous maniacs, most of them being chained and terrible to behold. As with most hospital posts, attendance was required only intermittently and the greater portion of the income was derived from private practice. St Mary Spital is shown north of the city wall, outside Bishopgate. Crooke was appointed keeper-physician to Bethlem Hospital in This established his absenteeism and embezzlement of hospital resources and charged him with failing to pursue "any endeavour for the curing of the distracted persons".
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